The continued rise in infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing pathogens is recognized globally as one of the most pressing concerns facing the healthcare community.

Carbapenems are widely regarded as the antibiotics of choice for the treatment of ESBL-producing infections, even when in vitro activity to other β-lactams has been demonstrated. However, indiscriminant carbapenem use is not without consequence, and carbapenem overuse has contributed to the emergence of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. The use of non-carbapenem β-lactams for the treatment of ESBL infections has yielded conflicting results. In this review, we discuss the available data for the use of cephamycins, cefepime, piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftolozane-tazobactam, and ceftazidime-avibactam for the treatment of ESBL infections.

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