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A comparative study between real-time PCR and loop-mediated isothermal amplification to detect carbapenemase and/or ESBL genes in Enterobacteriaceae directly from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples

Abstract. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of real-time PCR (Xpert Carba-R) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE) for detecting carbapenemase carriage in Enterobacteriaceae directly from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL).
Methods
Negative BAL samples were spiked with 21 well-characterized carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains to a final concentration of 102–104 cfu/mL. Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA), which detects five targets (blaKPCblaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48 and blaIMP-1), and the Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE system (Amplex-Diagnostics GmbH, Germany), which detects seven genes (blaKPCblaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA-48blaOXA-181blaCTXM-1 and blaCTXM-9), were evaluated for the detection of these genes directly from BAL samples.
Results
Xpert Carba-R showed 100% agreement with carbapenemase characterization by PCR and sequencing for all final bacteria concentrations. Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE showed 100%, 80% and 27% agreement with PCR and sequencing when testing 104, 103 and 102 cfu/mL, respectively. False negative results for Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE matched the highest cycle threshold values for Xpert Carba-R. Hands-on time for both assays was about 15 min, but Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE results were available within 30 min, whereas Xpert Carba-R took around 50 min.
Conclusions
We here describe the successful use of two commercial diagnostic tests, Xpert Carba-R and Eazyplex® SuperBug CRE, to detect bacterial carbapenem resistance genes directly in lower respiratory tract samples. Our results could be used as proof-of-concept data for validation of these tests for this indication.

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