Factors associated with recruitment success in the phase 2a study of aztreonam–avibactam development programme: a descriptive qualitative analysis among sites in Spain



Successful clinical trials are subject to recruitment. Recently, the REJUVENATE trial, a prospective phase 2a open-label, single-arm  interventional clinical trial conducted within the Innovative Medicines Initiative-supported Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe-Carbapenem Resistance project, was published, with 85% of the recruitment performed in Spain. We analysed the recruitment success in this trial by establishing a model of recruitment practice.



A descriptive qualitative study was performed from May 2016 to October 2017 at 10 participating Spanish centres. Data were extracted from:

  1. feasibility questionnaires to assess the centre’s potential for patient enrolment;
  2. delegation of responsibility records;
  3. pre-screening records including an anonymised list of potentially eligible and
  4. screening and enrolment records.

A descriptive analysis of the features was performed by the participating centre. Pearson’s and Spearman’s correlation coefficients were calculated to
determine factors of recruitment success.


The highest recruitment rate was observed in Hospitals 3 and 6 (58.8 and 47.0 patients per month, respectively). All the study teams were multidisciplinary
with a median of 15 members (range: 7–22). Only Hospitals 3, 5 and 6 had dedicated nursing staff appointed exclusively to this study. Moreover, in those
three hospitals and in Hospital 9, the study coordinator  performed exclusive functions as a research planner, and did not assume these functions for the other hospitals. The univariate analysis showed a significant association between recruitment success and months of recruitment (p=0.024), number of staff (p<0.001), higher number of pharmacists (p=0.005), infectious disease specialists (p<0.001), the presence of microbiologist in the research team (p=0.018) and specifically dedicated nursing staff (p=0.036). Conclusions The existence of broad multidisciplinary teams with staff dedicated exclusively to the study as well as the implementation of a well-designed local patient assessment strategy were the essential optimisation factors for recruitment success in Spain.


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